Startseva O.I., Guryanov R.A., Mahmud K.V., Zabolotnaya E.N. Three-dimensional analysis of the results of endoscopic eyebrows lift. Head and neck Russian Journal. 2020;8(1):15–21
Introduction. To date, many techniques have been described which allow the improvement of eyebrows shape and position to rejuvenate the upper third of the face. To analyze changes in the postoperative period, medical photography is currently widely used, which, however, has limitations: high requirements for standardization of shooting, inability to obtain reproducible angles, optical and perspective distortions, and the ability to evaluate and take measurements only in the plane of the received image. The use of photogrammetry and three-dimensional visualization methods to assess age and pathological features of the face surface is of considerable interest: the geometric and temporal patterns of aging, the movement of anthropometric points with a change in body position are described. The use of photogrammetry and three-dimensional visualization methods to assess age and pathological features of the face surface is of considerable interest.
Material and methods. We analyzed data from 21 patients aged 26 to 58 years with varying degrees of severity of age-related changes in the upper third of the face before surgical treatment and at various stages of postoperative follow-up. Scanning was performed in a sitting position in front of the mirror at a distance of 2 meters with fixing the patient’s gaze at their own pupils in the usual occlusion in order to reproduce the true horizontal position of the patient’s head. After the scanning procedure, the obtained scans were converted into three-dimensional models and recorded.
Results. Based on the analysis of postoperative changes of the upper third of the face, the following conclusions were made: the rise of the lateral part of the eyebrow is more pronounced compared to other parts of the eyebrow; a match between the rise of the central segment of the eyebrow and the postoperative loss of volume in the region of eyebrow and the upper eyelid fold exists; the eyebrow lift after surgery is weakly associated with a change in the canthal incline of the palpebral fissure. In the process of research, using the CFD algorithm (Coherent Point Drift), we were able to obtain the vectors of movement of face elements as a result of the operation and notice patterns in their direction: in the lateral region of the eyebrow and the outer corner of the eye, they have a vertical-lateral direction, in the middle third, the medial third of the eyebrow and nasal bones they are predominantly vertical. Conclusion. Three-dimensional technologies provide a powerful tool for recording and analyzing the shape, volume and direction of age-related and postoperative changes and are free from the limitations of classical photography.
Keywords: rejuvenation, eyebrow lift, volumetric changes, 3D analysis, photogrammetry
Conflicts of interest. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.
Funding. There was no funding for this study.
For citation: Startseva O.I., Guryanov R.A., Mahmud K.V., Zabolotnaya E.N. Three-dimensional analysis of the results of endoscopic eyebrows lift. Head and neck Russian Journal. 2020;8(1):15–21
The authors are responsible for the originality of the data presented and the possibility of publishing illustrative material – tables, figures, photographs of patients