Saakyan S.V., Skladnev D.A., Alekseeva A.P., Beznos O.V., Sorokin V.V. The role of instrumental diagnostics in assessing the metabolic status of ocular adnexal tumors. Head and neck. Russian Journal. 2024;12(1):128–135


Ocular adnexal tumors are the most prevalent eye lesions. Their differential diagnosis can be challenging.Correct diagnosis is of paramount importance for the choice of treatment strategy. Methods that can be used inthe preoperative period to verify the benign or malignant nature of the tumor are of great interest. Therefore, theissues of preoperative diagnostics are relevant, because of the need to establish a timely diagnosis, optimizetreatment strategy and determine the scope of surgical intervention.One of the fundamental factors that distinguish a tumor cell from a normal cell is metabolic alterations. Tumor cellsundergo metabolic reprogramming to maintain their viability, growth, and proliferation. This article describes themajor metabolic changes that occur in tumor cells. It is now well established that the metabolic profile is differentbetween different tumor types. Studies of the biochemical processes occurring in tumors open new opportunitiesfor researchers to develop various diagnostic methods.This review discusses the role of modern diagnostic methods in assessing the metabolic status of ocular adnexaltumors. Metabolic reprogramming of tumors has served as a basis for the development of various diagnosticmethods since the middle of the last century. The possibilities of thermography in ocular oncology are described;the method has proved to be most informative in detecting melanoma of the skin. PET/CT has gained the greatestimportance as a method of diagnostics of ocular adnexal melanoma and lymphoma. The role of this method indetecting metastases of malignant tumors cannot be overestimated. Changes of energy metabolism in rapidlyproliferating cells determined the use of optical methods for diagnostics of ocular appendage tumors. Ramanscattering, differential backscattering and fluorescence diagnostic methods are described.Nanotechnology is an actively developing and promising field of science. In this review, special attention is paidto the possibilities of nanobiotechnological methods. The range of possible applications of nanoparticles inmedicine is extremely wide, and the methods are characterized by high sensitivity and selectivity. The metabolicreprogramming feature of tumor cells determines their ability to reduce cations to neutral atoms at a high rate withthe subsequent in situ formation of nanosized nanoparticles of biogenic metals. The methodological approachbased on the registration of the parameters of biogenic nanoparticles, which can reflect the level of metabolicactivity of cells, is the most promising and can be used to detect various types of tumors. It is proposed to usethe ability of tumor cells to rapidly reduce noble metal cations and form biogenic particles in situ in an innovativeapproach to the diagnosis of ocular adnexal tumors.

Key words: tumors, ocular adnexa, diagnosis, metabolism, nanotechnology, biogenic nanoparticles
Conflicts of interest. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.
Financing. No author has a financial or property interest in any material or method mentioned.

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