Diab Kh.M., Daikhes N.A., Kaibov A.A., Pashchinina O.A., Arabi A. Surgical treatment of patients with otosclerosis with grade IV hearing loss and deafness. Head and neck. Russian Journal. 2020;8(3):35–43 (in Russian).
The authors are responsible for the originality of the data presented and the possibility of publishing illustrative material – tables, figures, photographs of patients.
Background. Today, treatment of otosclerosis with severe hearing loss and deafness remains an urgent problem. Otosclerosis is a hereditary disease with a bilateral involvement of the bone capsule of the ear labyrinth, which can cause hearing loss. The progressive otosclerotic process in the labyrinth bone capsule can lead to a bilateral mixed or deep SNHL up to complete hearing loss, tinnitus, vestibular disorders. No specific treatment exists for patients with otosclerosis with grade IV hearing loss and deafness, either in the world literature data or in our country. Cochlear implantation (CI) is an effective method of rehabilitation for patients with grade IV hearing loss and deafness. However, according to various authors, the complications of otosclerosis develop frequently both during surgery and at the stage of hearing rehabilitation.
Material and methods. CI was performed in 60 patients of the FSBI SCCO FMBA of Russia in the period from
2016 to 2019. All patients were divided into 2 groups – the main group, patients with otosclerosis (n=30) with IV degree of hearing loss and deafness; the second group — the control group, patients (n=30) with other etiologies (trauma and meningitis). Patients of the main group (with otosclerosis) were subdivided into two subgroups: I-A – who had previously undergone stapedoplasty (12 patients); I-B – no history of surgery (no stapedoplasty) – 18 patients. In group I-B, the patients had preserved structures of the middle ear (stirrup, stapedius muscle, footplate), but the ankylosis of the stirrup at the same time. In this regard, a method was proposed for registering stapedial reflexes in stapes ankylosis in patients with otosclerosis.
Results. According to the data of the tonal signals registration in the free sound field, the hearing thresholds stabilized by the 6th month of using the speech processor in both groups and did not have significant changes in dynamics when observing the patients for 2 years of the speech processor usage.
Conclusion. Despite the significant changes in the inner ear structures, CI provides good results in patients’ rehabilitation according to CT of the temporal bones in otosclerosis.
Key words: otosclerosis, sensorineural hearing loss, deafness, cochlear implantation, hearing rehabilitation
Conflicts of interest. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.